The Tang Dynasty emperor also love low interest rates-sql server 2000 个人版

Tang Dynasty emperors also like low interest rates, Tang Dynasty emperors also like low interest rates       pawn industry in the Tang Dynasty belongs to the emerging industry, the huge demand for financing to make its rapid development and expansion. The emperor in order to take care of the interests of the people, repeatedly issued edicts pawn interest rates reduced. The prime minister Tang Taizong Zhang Zhiqian | zhenguannianjian, fangxuanling emperor according to the instructions added provisions in the "Tang Lu Shu Yi": "any matter examples, close to not more than five points, for the times, if the officer does not charge back to Lee, daniel." This is one for the pawn industry regulations, demand deposits (month) interest rate shall not exceed 5%, the loan interest rate shall not exceed 10% (month), and does not allow the beneficial interest behavior. As the first Chinese history for the establishment of the national interest law, it reflects the progress of the financial industry, but also reflects, in the early Tang Dynasty, the pawn industry has to get rid of the mode of operation of a charitable nature in the northern and Southern Dynasties, has become a profit for the purpose of regulating the business activities. You can imagine, when the pawn up interest for personal interests, so that people miserable situation, otherwise Tang Taizong wouldn’t have to go with a group of businessmen. Pawn is one of the oldest financial formats, and it has been basically formed in the fifth Century ad.. In the northern and Southern Dynasties of "great wealth and seven or eight Buddhas", monasteries became a place for wealth accumulation. As a religious organization, charity is the foundation, so the monastery uses the spare funds to set up the Treasury, for the poor people to pawn business, when the interest charged rarely, the main purpose is to relieve the public. In the Tang Dynasty, the developed business industry created favorable conditions for the rapid development and maturity of the financial industry. The pawn industry quickly jumped out of the small circle of the temple management and became a booming financial format. Under the background of social stability and economic prosperity, the demand for social capital financing is huge, pawn gradually developed into the largest financial industry in the Tang Dynasty, forming the flourishing situation of three forms of official, private and temple camps. The scope of business is no longer as single as the Temple Bank, except for pawn business, but also accept the rich people’s low interest deposits, commercial loans, Valet storage valuables, custody fees and other business. At the time of the pawn industry has a variety of business forms, including the more famous: the quality of library, specializes in the pawn business, people will be sent to the quality of library items, change to return, within the agreed period of service recovery, to retrieve the original, otherwise the goods belong to the quality of library all cabinet; Fang, was originally designed for businessmen and bureaucrats and storage the merchant shop, bureaucracy for security reasons, at the same time avoid handling money trouble, often reserved in the cabinet cabinet workshop workshop, fixed fee, and according to the proof of the deposit payment, also began to run after the pawn business; send attached shop, this is the consignment items involved in shops, pawn business profit next, even as the pawn industry gradually. Although the Tang Dynasty is a prosperous Dynasty China history, but no money, no surplus still meet the eye everywhere. Therefore, the significance of the pawnshop to the ordinary people is far from the Bank of today. Not only the poor people can not do without pawn industry, but also the literati and officialdom classes often patronize pawn shops 唐朝皇帝也喜欢低利率   唐朝皇帝也喜欢低利率     典当业在唐朝属于新兴行业,巨大的资金融通需求让其快速发展壮大。皇帝为了照顾百姓利益,多次颁布诏令降低典当业利率水平。   文 | 张志前   唐太宗贞观年间,宰相房玄龄根据皇帝的指令在《唐律疏义》中添加了一条规定:“凡质举之例,收予不得逾五分,出息过其倍,若回利充本,官不理。”这是一条针对典当业的规定,要求存款(月)利率不得超过5%,放款(月)利率不得超过10%,且不允许有利滚利行为。   作为中国历史上第一条针对利息设立的国家法令,它反映了金融业的进步,同时也反映出,在唐朝初年,典当业已经摆脱了南北朝时期带有慈善性质的运作模式,成为了一种以盈利为目的的规范的商业活动。可以想见,当时典当行抬高利息牟取利益,以致百姓苦不堪言的情形,否则,唐太宗也犯不着跟一帮商人过不去。   典当是最古老的金融业态之一,到公元五世纪已基本成型。在“十分天下之财,而佛有七八”的南北朝时期,寺院成为财富聚集之地。作为宗教机构,慈善为本,于是寺院用闲余的资金设立质库,为穷苦百姓办理典当业务,彼时收取的利息很少,主要目的是为了救济民众。到了唐朝,发达的工商业为金融业迅速发展和成熟创造了有利条件,典当业迅速跳出寺院经营的小圈子,成为一种蓬勃发展的金融业态。   在社会安定、经济繁荣的大背景下,社会资金融通需求巨大,典当逐渐发展为唐朝最大的金融业,形成了官营、私营、寺营三种形式并存的兴盛局面。经营范围也不再像曾经的寺院质库那样单一,除经营典当业务外,还接受有钱人的低息存款、办理商业放款、代客储存贵重物品收取保管费等多种业务。   当时的典当业有多种经营形式,比较有名的包括:质库,专门经营典当业务,百姓将物品送于质库,换钱以归,在约定期限内付息还本,取回原物,否则物品归质库所有;柜坊,本来是专门为商人和官僚储存钱物的店铺,官僚富商为了安全考量,同时避免搬运麻烦,常常将钱物存于柜坊,柜坊收取一定保管费,并根据存放者所出凭证代其支付,后也开始兼营典当业务;寄附铺,本是受托寄卖物品的商铺,在利润驱使下涉足典当业务,甚至逐渐把典当作为了主业。   虽然唐朝是中国历史上一个富足的朝代,但身无余钱、家无余粮者依然比比皆是。因此典当行对于普通百姓的意义,远非今日之银行可比。不仅穷人离不开典当业,就是士大夫阶层也经常会光顾典当行。杜甫在《曲江》一诗中写到“朝回日日典春衣,每日江头尽醉归”,便是在描写自己被迫常常典衣换酒的窘境;白居易的“走笔还诗债,抽衣当药钱”则反映了他老年时期典当衣物换钱买药的生活场景。   典当业涉及面如此之广,无怪乎皇帝也要亲自过问它的发展态势了。不光有唐太宗修改《唐律疏义》,后来的唐朝法律对典当业进一步做出了非常详尽的规定:“诸公私以财物出举者,任依私契,官不为理。每月收利,不得过六分;积日虽多,不得过一倍。……收质者,非对物主,不得辄卖;若计利过本不赎者,听告市司对卖,有剩,还之。如负债者逃,保人代偿。”进一步将放款月利率降为6%,同时规定当期再长,利息不得超过本金一倍。   即便这样,到了唐玄宗时期,典当依然是最赚钱的行业,甚至连一些朝廷机关也由财政提供本钱,创办典当行生利,用以解决办公经费不足和官员的福利问题。唐玄宗觉得还是因为利率太高的缘故,于是发布诏令:近来公私放债,取息颇多,今后天下放债收息,私人只许(月)四分,官本(月)五分。将典当业的利率进一步下调,限制高息放贷的暴利行为。   经营环境的日益“恶化”并没有阻止唐朝典当业欣欣向荣的局面。在社会大量资金融通需求催生下,它甚至发展成为最大的商业,在当时的两百多种商业行为中属于盈利大户。证据之一是,“安史之乱”后国家财政入不敷出,唐德宗建中三年(公元782年)下令由政府出面向所有在京师长安的典当行“借钱”,规定每户课借资本金四分之一,共取得财政收入100多万缗(一缗即成串的一千文铜钱)。由此可推知,当时长安一地典当业的资本金就超过400万缗,占国家全年财政收入的三分之一以上。 进入【新浪财经股吧】讨论相关的主题文章: